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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| January-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 19, 2018

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative analysis of kvaal's and cameriere's methods for dental age estimation: A panoramic radiographic study
Nikhat Mukhtar Gazge, Balaji Pachipulusu, Poornima Chandra, Poornima Govindraju, Vinitra Vasan
January-June 2018, 3(1):30-35
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_7_18  
Background and Aim: Age estimation is one of the indicators employed to identify an individual in forensic sciences. Teeth are frequently used as they can be preserved for long time even after many of the tissues have disintegrated. The radiological techniques of age estimation such as Kvaal's and Cameriere's are simple, noninvasive, and reproducible. These are less time-consuming and do not necessitate extraction. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate and compare the accuracy of Kvaal's and Cameriere's methods for dental age estimation using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 120 patients within the age group of 20–60 years, reporting to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology over a period of 3 years were selected from the archives of database based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Radiographs of patients were divided according to age into four groups with an interval of 10 years, each group comprising of 30 individuals (15 males and 15 females). The mandibular cuspid, first bicuspid, and second bicuspid on either left or right side were selected for analysis as these teeth are not likely to undergo wear and tear. The required measurements were performed using Adobe Photoshop CS5 for both the methods. Results and Conclusion: The data were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis, Stepwise linear regression analysis, Student's unpaired t-test, ANOVA, and Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Kvaal's method was found to be ideal compared to Cameriere's method to predict age. The best tooth to be considered for predicting age using Kvaal's method was found to be tooth number 34.
  5 3,148 389
Age determination by schour and massler method: A forensic study
G Jaquilin George, Laxmikanth Chatra, Prashanth Shenoy, KM Veena, Rachana V Prabhu, LS Vagish Kumar
January-June 2018, 3(1):36-39
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_5_18  
Introduction: Age determination can be done by assessing the developmental and eruption status of dentition in the oral cavity. Schour and Massler studied the development of human dentition radiographically and histologically and put forward a chart explaining the stages of both deciduous and permanent teeth development in 21 stages. This chart is used in this study to estimate the age in the study population. Aim: The aim of the study was to check the efficacy of Schour and Massler method in determining the age of the study population using Schour and Massler chart of teeth development. Methodology: This study comprised of 62 panoramic images, taken from the department of oral medicine and radiology archives. Age was assessed by comparing the tooth developmental stages on panoramic radiographs with the standards using Schour and Massler chart. To check the accuracy of the present method, the actual age of the samples was matched with the dental age (DA) estimated by Schour and Massler method. Results: Data were statistically analyzed using paired t-test and correlation was done. It showed a strong correlation between the actual age and DA by Schour and Massler method. Conclusion: Schour and Massler method is a reliable method for age estimation in the study population.
  3 10,276 1,194
Evaluation of accuracy of human bite marks on skin and an inanimate object: A forensic-based cross-sectional study
K Saraswathi Gopal, A Vani Anusha
January-June 2018, 3(1):2-5
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_20_17  
Introduction: Bite marks are often observed at crime scenes on various parts of the human body. Bite marks have also been observed on various edible leftovers at the crime scenes which were used as evidence for identifying the criminals. Objective: The objective of the study is to compare the accuracy of bite marks on an inanimate substance (fruit) and a living tissue (skin) using digital analysis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 25 volunteers. The registered bites of individuals on inanimate object (fruit) and living tissue (skin of forearm) were photographed with the American Board of Forensic Odontology scale No. 2 in the view field immediately after the production of bite marks. Dental casts of the individuals were obtained and photographed out of which computer-assisted overlays were generated, and analysis was carried out digitally using Adobe Photoshop version developed by Adobe Systems. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS software, version 22 and Chi-square test. Results: Skin had a comparable accuracy to that of an inanimate object which is statistically attested. Conclusion: The source of bite marks, the substrate onto which they are generated and the technique of lifting the bite imprints serve as important tools in analysis.
  2 6,267 850
Comparative evaluation of formocresol and electrosurgical pulpotomy in human primary teeth- An in vivo study
Kritika Gupta, Vinay Bal Singh Thakur, Nitika Gupta, Archana Sharma, Atika Mahajan, Kanika Gupta
January-June 2018, 3(1):21-25
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_1_18  
Introduction: Vital pulpotomy is defined as the surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed pulp followed by the placement of medicament over the remaining radicular pulp thereby maintaining the vitality of the remaining radicular pulp. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to compare clinically and radiographically the success rate of formocresol (FC) and electrosurgical pulpotomy in human primary teeth. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty primary molars between 3 and 8 years of age were taken from the Outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups of fifteen teeth each based on type of pulpotomy performed (15 receiving electrosurgical pulpotomy and 15 receiving FC pulpotomy). Under rubber dam isolation, pulpotomy was performed in both the groups and teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. The patients were recalled at 3, 6, and 9 months for clinical and radiographic follow-up. The data were evaluated using Chi-square test. Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The overall clinical success of FC was 100%, whereas that of electrocautery was 96% at 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-up. The overall radiographic success of FC was 100%, 93%, and 93% and that of electrocautery was 97%, 87%, and 77% at 3, 6, and 9 months, respectively. The teeth considered as failures were subjected to further treatment. Conclusion: There was statistically no significant difference in the pre-operative clinical and radiographic features between the two groups with the p>.05 as statistically analysed using chi-square test. Further studies using larger samples and longer evaluation periods are recommended.
  2 4,331 532
Dental tissue as an imperative marker for human identification in mass disaster
Anshika Khare, Vrinda Saxena, Manish Jain, Vidhatri Tiwari, Binu Santha, Vijayta Sharva
January-June 2018, 3(1):26-29
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_18_17  
Background: Mass disaster events allied with astounding damage of humanity, consequently leading with complexity to recognize human eccentricity. Forensic science has an enormous role in human identification after disaster. As human teeth are admirable source of DNA due to their relatively higher degree of physical and chemical resistance; thus, revival of genetic material is promising with teeth; in case of disasters. Therefore, human teeth can be used as an imperative resource for human identification in mass disasters. Aim and Objectives: This study aims to compare DNA quantity and purity, of extracted human teeth buried in soil and establishes the result that dental tissue can be used as an imperative marker in human identification. Material and Methods: An in vitro experimental study conducted with 30 extracted human teeth. All teeth divided into two groups depending on the time of buried in soil – (i) Group 1 (old group): It was comprised of 14 teeth, buried for 12 months and (ii) Group 2 (new group): It was comprised of 16 teeth, buried for 6 months. Then, DNA isolation, quantification, and purity assessment was and results analyzed by SPSS version 20 using paired and unpaired Student's t-test. Results: This study illustrates that the entire samples were amplifiable in polymerase chain reaction and showing reverently high-quality results. DNA purity was not significantly affected by the storage period of teeth in soil. Conclusion: The study concluded that DNA isolation and assessment of quantity and purity can be successfully done from extracted teeth buried in soil. The quantity and purity of DNA retrieved from those teeth who buried for 6 months was high. The quantity of DNA was significantly affected by the storage period of teeth but the purity or quality of DNA was not. Thus, it established the fact the dental tissue can be used as an imperative marker for human identification.
  1 2,686 320
Trends in forensic odontology publications: 2000–2015
Christos K Papadopoulos, Angeliki Bouzala, Christos Stavrianos, Panagiota Stavrianou
January-June 2018, 3(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_2_18  
Background: In recent years, forensic odontology is facing a wide recognition as a consequence of the crucial role the discipline has in many legal and criminal cases, and experts in the field are constantly in research of more accurate and advanced methods. Materials and Methods: The contents of the most-known peer-review forensic journals were searched to identify the publications in forensic odontology from 2000 to 2015. They were categorized according to the topic, type, and origin of the publication. Results: There is a significant increase in publications in the recent years which primarily focus on dental age assessment, bite mark analysis, and dental identification. Most of the publications were research papers, and the majority of research is conducted in a few selected countries. Conclusion: It is fundamental that further research is needed to strengthen the forensic odontology investigation outcomes and to establish the standard protocols and international communications.
  1 4,670 554
A cross-sectional study to assess knowledge, attitude, and awareness of forensic odontology among medical students: An emergency concern
Jayalakshmi Kumaraswamy, Raghunandan Bangalore Nagarajachar, Roopavathi Keshavaiah, Archana Susainathan, Mahesh Batalahalli Sreenivas Reddy, Jaya Naidu
January-June 2018, 3(1):17-20
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_3_18  
Background: Medical professionals are important in treating and management of victims of mass disasters, abuse, and organized crimes. Although the forensic odontologist has a pivotal role in the investigation, health-care provider in the emergency medicine should have the potential to detect, inform, and interact with the dentist for further applications in legal issues. We aimed to conduct the present study on the knowledge, awareness, and attitude among the medical students. Materials and Methods: With informed consent, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 194 4th-year medical students. A structured questionnaire consisting of 17 items relating to forensic odontology to assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitude among medical students and data were collected and reviewed. Results: On analyzing the collected data of 194 participants, the percentage of participants who knew: the meaning of forensic odontology, forensic odontology a part of forensic medicine, and role of forensic odontology in the criminal analysis were 172 (87%), 192 (99%), and 181 (93%), respectively. A total of 183 (94%) were aware of bite mark patterns, 171 (88%) would examine for bite marks in child abuse, 89 (46%) the lip prints, DNA as accurate and sensitive method of comparison and teeth as source of DNA was 128 (66%) and 122 (63%), respectively. A total of 127 (65%) agreed that forensic odontologist as experts, 101 (52%) had opted for dental evidence, and 139 (72%) had agreed that postmortem unit should include a dental laboratory facility. However, only 79 (41%) knew the tooth as the choice of evidence in mass disaster. 101 (52%) stated dentist as expert witness. The awareness of the role of teeth in age and gender estimation was 147 (76%) and 79 (41%), respectively. Forty-nine (25%) had handled forensic dentistry case in emergency medicine and importance of maintaining dental records were known to 85 (44%). Conclusions: Medical students had inadequate knowledge of forensic odontology. As a health-care provider, medical professionals should understand the implications of forensic odontology.
  1 4,471 464
Age estimation by exfoliative cytology: New era of noninvasive forensic science
Reena Chaudhary, Priya Sahni, MD Shylaja, Avani Patel
January-June 2018, 3(1):40-43
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_6_18  
Background: Age determination in mass disaster is an important information that helps to identify the individual. Exfoliative cytology is one of the noninvasive techniques with minimal expenditure, which allows simple and pain-free collection of intact cells from different layers within the epithelium for examination. The present study uses exfoliative cytology smears from buccal mucosa, to estimate the age-related changes to guide the investigators for correct identification of unknown human bodies. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study is to estimate the age of an individual from buccal smears. Materials and Methods: Buccal smears were taken from 50 healthy individuals and analyzed for cellular and nuclear perimeter, using Dewinter's image analysis software (Version 4.3) using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni method. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in the size of the cell with the age of the individual (P = 0.000). Nuclear size reduces with increasing age but was not consistent. NP:CP ratio increased with advancing age. Conclusion: The cell size is a more reliable parameter to assess the age of the individual.
  1 3,663 493
Odontometry and skull anthropometry: A possible tool for stature estimation using minimum armamentarium
Shweta Hinduja, Sandhya Tamgadge, Avinash Tamgadge
January-June 2018, 3(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_19_17  
Introduction: In the Asia Pacific region, because of variation in topography and climatic conditions, India is a disaster-prone country. The identification of an individual is one of the most important aspects of forensic medicine. There are different methods for identification of a person's age and gender. However, there are relatively fewer methods to estimate the stature of an individual. Stature correlation to skull and jaw dimensions is less frequently reported. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between height of the person and diameter of the head (DH) and circumference of the head with the combined mesiodistal (MD) width of maxillary anterior teeth using minimum and easily available armamentarium. Materials and Methods: Fifty model casts of students were considered to measure the MD width of the anterior teeth along with the circumference of the head and DH (distance from glabella to inion) with the help of a nonstretchable measuring tape. Heights of the students were recorded in inches. All the findings were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Observations and Results: When combined MD width of the maxillary anterior teeth was plotted against height, a statically significant correlation was seen. When head circumference was plotted against height, a higher correlation was seen. When two measurements were added and plotted against height, improved elevated correlation was seen. Similarly, when the MD width was added to circumference of the head and DH, a greater correlation was observed. Conclusion: It can be safely concluded that with more data to prove the study, a formula can be drawn to estimate the height of the person using MD width of the anterior teeth, DH, and circumference of the head.
  1 3,885 429
EDITORIAL
Role of radiology in forensic odontology
TN Uma Maheshwari
January-June 2018, 3(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_8_18  
  - 3,633 639