• Users Online: 56
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Reader Login
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Most popular articles (Since June 28, 2016)

  Archives   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
Racial characteristics of human teeth
Shivlal M Rawlani, Sudhir S Rawlani, Rahul R Bhowate, Rakhi M Chandak, Monika Khubchandani
January-June 2017, 2(1):38-42
Forensic odontology is a branch of dentistry which deals with the appropriate handling and examination of dental evidence which help in identification of person and presentation of dental findings in the interest of justice. It is concerned with the application of science and technology in human identification, requiring the coordinated efforts of a multidisciplinary team. Determining the racial affinity of an unknown individual from dentition for identification is indeed a difficult endeavor. However, there are some dental characteristics which are predominant in one of racial groups, and these contribute important indicators in the identification process. Forensic anthropologists most often provide details of bone studies, but forensic dentists can assist in the process. The determination of sex and ancestry can be accessed from shape and form of the skull, especially from skull appearance. Forensic dentists can determine race within the three major groups: Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid. Additional characteristics of teeth, such as cusps of Carabelli, shovel-shaped incisors, and multicusped premolars, can also assist in the determination of ancestry.
  64,034 1,663 5
Commonly used different dental age estimation methods in children and adolescents
Roshan K Chaudhary, Nagabhushana Doggalli
July-December 2018, 3(2):50-54
Age is an important factor for all the human beings whether it is living or dead. It is useful for day-to-day life works such as educational purpose, governmental purpose, job purpose, medical purpose, crime investigation, court of law, clinical practices, research, and reconstructive identification purpose in case of dead individuals. Of many procedures for age estimation such as chronological age, bone age, mental age, and others, dental age estimation is considered to be an important procedure as tooth development shows less inconstancy than other developmental features or in relation to chronological age and also teeth are most tough and resilient part of the skeleton. High survivability of teeth exposed to severe physical factors, such as fire and water immersion, make assessment of developing teeth the method of choice in forensic age estimation. Age estimation using teeth can be divided into three categories of age groups: prenatal, neonatal, and early postnatal period; children and adolescents; and adults. Children are defined as the human beings from birth to puberty and adolescents as from puberty to approximately age of 20 years. Hence, the motive is to overview for dental age estimation in children and adolescents from different techniques.
  14,133 1,747 3
Sex identification in forensic odontology- a review of various methodology
Bhawani Gupta, Mogit Gupta
January-June 2016, 1(1):9-13
Forensic odontology is the investigative part of dentistry that applies dental principles to legal issues that analyses dental evidence for human identification. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology, and it is very important, especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. The compilation and critical reading are necessary to understand the role of forensic odontology expert with regard to sex determination using dental records. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination in forensic odontology.
  9,978 1,295 1
Age determination by schour and massler method: A forensic study
G Jaquilin George, Laxmikanth Chatra, Prashanth Shenoy, KM Veena, Rachana V Prabhu, LS Vagish Kumar
January-June 2018, 3(1):36-39
Introduction: Age determination can be done by assessing the developmental and eruption status of dentition in the oral cavity. Schour and Massler studied the development of human dentition radiographically and histologically and put forward a chart explaining the stages of both deciduous and permanent teeth development in 21 stages. This chart is used in this study to estimate the age in the study population. Aim: The aim of the study was to check the efficacy of Schour and Massler method in determining the age of the study population using Schour and Massler chart of teeth development. Methodology: This study comprised of 62 panoramic images, taken from the department of oral medicine and radiology archives. Age was assessed by comparing the tooth developmental stages on panoramic radiographs with the standards using Schour and Massler chart. To check the accuracy of the present method, the actual age of the samples was matched with the dental age (DA) estimated by Schour and Massler method. Results: Data were statistically analyzed using paired t-test and correlation was done. It showed a strong correlation between the actual age and DA by Schour and Massler method. Conclusion: Schour and Massler method is a reliable method for age estimation in the study population.
  9,598 1,126 3
Bite mark: Is it still valid??
Abirami Arthanari, Nagabhushana Doggalli, Karthikeya Patil, HP Jai Shankar, A Vidhya
January-June 2019, 4(1):14-20
Bite mark evidence has been introduced in trials all over the country. Bite mark evidence, an aspect of forensic odontology, is the process by which odontologist's (dentists) attempt to match marks found at crime scenes with the dental impressions of suspects. If a victim is bitten by a perpetrator during a crime and police have a suspect, odontologists can attempt to “match” the bite mark to the suspect's teeth. There have been a lot of controversies in the identification of bite mark analysis in the past 15 years and acceptance by the law. While this review aims to explain the increasing number of wrongful convictions that is associated and related to the past with bite mark analyses and this has resulted in intense scientific and legal scrutiny. This article contains the current status and position of bite mark analysis. It explains about the highlights and drawback of bite mark identification and law's evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence.
  6,502 768 1
Virtual autopsy: An imaging technological integration in forensic odontology
A Vidhya, Nagabhushana Doggalli, Karthikeya Patil, Keerthi Narayan, D Thiruselvakumar, A Abirami
January-June 2019, 4(1):2-6
With the advent of new technologies being integrated into varied aspects of dental care through visual, photographic, and radiological evidences in clinical diagnostics, these aspects are yet to be involved in forensic sciences. This is despite the availability of the technological advances in today's clinical settings. This review discusses the feasibility of integration of virtual autopsy in forensic odontology practice in an Indian setting. Using high-tech radiological approaches, virtual autopsy provides an efficient and more accurate view on cases such as thanatological investigations, carbonized and putrefied body identifications, mass disaster cases, age estimation, anthropological examinations, and skin lesion analyses. In certain cases, the postmortem photographic and radiological examination becomes essential as the access to the oral cavity is hindered. These become feasible with the advent of availability of antemortem radiological digital formats stored in hospital settings, with the improved collection of data compared to the traditional techniques. However, we do not have any state and national level protocols and laboratories to augment the capabilities further. Virtual autopsy is likely to replace conventional autopsies in the future. Thus the century-old investigation system in our country can be upgraded by the utilization of this Modern Technology. This review advocates a multidisciplinary research and advocacy to develop improved tools and protocols for virtual autopsy and to stress the role of forensic odontologists in an Indian setting.
  6,439 759 2
Truth from untruth: Dental pulp and its role in forensic odontology – a retrospective review
Jayalakshmi Kumaraswamy, Jaya Naidu, Raghunandan Bangalore Nagarajachar, Mahesh Batalahalli Sreenivas Reddy
January-June 2017, 2(1):30-33
Forensic identification by its nature is a multi-disciplinary approach relying on positive identification methodology. This branch dealing with the identification of the deceased has many maxims, the best known of which, is that every contact leaves its trace. The identification of dental remains are of primary importance when the deceased person is skeletonized, decomposed, burned, or dismembered. A google literature search was done on various studies done using dental pulp in forensic odontology. Based on the available data, the details were analysed and reviewed. Pulp plays a pivital role in forensic odontology. Pulpal tissue can be used for molecular analysis to determine Age, Sex and Blood group antigen. Apart from these, the extracted DNA from Pulp can be used for Personal Identification. Odontoblasts present in pulp can be used to assess age as well as the days of death. To conclude Dental pulp has a high potential value in forensic odontology.
  6,202 950 1
Current and evolving applications of three-dimensional printing in forensic odontology: A review
Roshan K Chaudhary, Nagabhushana Doggalli, HV Chandrakant, Karthikeya Patil
July-December 2018, 3(2):59-65
In these digitized surroundings, we should not overlook the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in forensic odontology, for investigative or court purposes, which is still comparatively new. We will use the term “3D printing” as it is widely recognized and will perhaps be the simplest phrase for the odontologist for daily use. Alternative terms are additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping. Today, 3D printing is most commonly used in dentistry for the manufacture of drill guides for dental implants, study models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. However, we are yet to see forensic odontologists, lawyers, and expert witnesses appreciate embrace the advantages of 3D printing for its use in court of law. This may be due to a perception of it being complicated technology, high cost, or simply a lack of understanding of what can be done with 3D printing. 3D image capture devices minimize the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts and medico-legal cases. The major application of 3D printing in forensic odontology includes bite mark analysis, 3D-computed tomography facial reconstruction, dental age estimation, sex determination, and physical models. The aim of this review article is to outline the use and possible benefits of 3D printing in forensic odontology.
  6,029 884 8
Evaluation of accuracy of human bite marks on skin and an inanimate object: A forensic-based cross-sectional study
K Saraswathi Gopal, A Vani Anusha
January-June 2018, 3(1):2-5
Introduction: Bite marks are often observed at crime scenes on various parts of the human body. Bite marks have also been observed on various edible leftovers at the crime scenes which were used as evidence for identifying the criminals. Objective: The objective of the study is to compare the accuracy of bite marks on an inanimate substance (fruit) and a living tissue (skin) using digital analysis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 25 volunteers. The registered bites of individuals on inanimate object (fruit) and living tissue (skin of forearm) were photographed with the American Board of Forensic Odontology scale No. 2 in the view field immediately after the production of bite marks. Dental casts of the individuals were obtained and photographed out of which computer-assisted overlays were generated, and analysis was carried out digitally using Adobe Photoshop version developed by Adobe Systems. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS software, version 22 and Chi-square test. Results: Skin had a comparable accuracy to that of an inanimate object which is statistically attested. Conclusion: The source of bite marks, the substrate onto which they are generated and the technique of lifting the bite imprints serve as important tools in analysis.
  5,979 809 2
Teeth as a Source of DNA to identify mass disaster victims
Vagish Kumar L Shanbhag
January-June 2017, 2(1):43-44
  5,475 622 1
Scope of forensic odontology
TN Uma Maheswari
January-June 2016, 1(1):1-1
  5,277 756 -
Forensic odontology - "Dentist as a third eye"
Nikhil Raj, Jeena Sebastian, GK Shakunthala, B Siva, P Shibu
July-December 2016, 1(2):53-57
Forensic odontology plays a key role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. Forensic odontology involves the management, examination, evaluation, and presentation of dental evidence in criminal or civil proceedings, all in the interest of justice. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. Forensic odontologist must also have the basic knowledge of the role of a forensic pathologist and the methods used in autopsy, as dental evidence is the most valuable and reliable method. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, and child abuse and also identify an individual. In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. This review is based on the information collected from standard research articles and literature from textbooks. Data were thoroughly evaluated and formatted.
  5,267 709 -
Challenges in forensic odontology age estimation methods
Johanna Namene, Nagabhushana Doggalli
July-December 2018, 3(2):46-49
One of the major roles of the forensic odontologist in identification is age estimation. There are a wide range of methods available in literature for age estimation. Methods have been tested on different populations, modified, and remedied. Contradictions and discrepancies between researchers often occur when the same method is applied and gives different results. There are a lot of factors leading to these discrepancies, mainly the lack of standardization of methods and procedures. However, this can be challenging because of differences in population ethnicity. Irrespective of these drawbacks, accuracy and reliability still need to be maintained. This article aims to review the limitations of various techniques used in forensic odontology, challenges faced as well as future recommendations.
  5,282 607 1
Racial, Occupational, and Cultural Variations in Human Teeth: Teeth as Evidence in Forensic Identification
January-June 2019, 4(1):7-10
Teeth are the strongest part of the human body which can withstand high explosions and are not damaged easily. Thus, teeth are more likely to be the evidence in mass fatal incidents where highly mutilated and dismembered dead bodies are beyond recognition. Each tooth possesses a set of unique characteristics called tooth class characteristics which form the basis of identification. Other features which help in identification are dental pathology, restorations, and dental anomalies. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, occupation, and habits can also be determined from teeth. The present review is an attempt to highlight the racial, occupational, and cultural variations seen in the teeth and their role as in forensic identification of victim/suspects.
  5,270 523 1
Tools for expert witnesses in dentistry: An overview
P Gayathri, N Thilagavathy, K Karthikeyan
July-December 2016, 1(2):44-47
The Inter disciplinary knowledge of forensic dentistry and the modern Day investigation plays a small but important role in enforcing justice in civil and criminal cases. Forensic odontologists are the expertise who help to identify the unrecognizable human remains following a mass disaster with the preserved structures of the oral environment. Thus this article describes the various aspects of forensic odontology in the current scenario.
  5,062 529 1
Forensic odontology-renowned cases solved
TN Uma Maheswari, Manjari Chaudhary
January-June 2021, 6(1):1-2
  4,933 336 -
Laxmikanth Chatra, Tim Peter, Auswaf Ahsan
July-December 2016, 1(2):48-52
Cheiloscopy has been fascinating from the time it took a prominent place in the field of forensic dentistry. This article aims at a review tracing the cheiloscopic studies conducted worldwide. It highlights the results achieved of each research work, and focus is made on the effect of the same. Cheiloscopy and dermatoglyphics with its various applications have immense potential, which are not fully explored till date, and it is necessary to channel the resources of cheiloscopy in a proper channel and henceforth maximum scientific benefit can be achieved with the same.
  4,451 583 1
Trends in forensic odontology publications: 2000–2015
Christos K Papadopoulos, Angeliki Bouzala, Christos Stavrianos, Panagiota Stavrianou
January-June 2018, 3(1):12-16
Background: In recent years, forensic odontology is facing a wide recognition as a consequence of the crucial role the discipline has in many legal and criminal cases, and experts in the field are constantly in research of more accurate and advanced methods. Materials and Methods: The contents of the most-known peer-review forensic journals were searched to identify the publications in forensic odontology from 2000 to 2015. They were categorized according to the topic, type, and origin of the publication. Results: There is a significant increase in publications in the recent years which primarily focus on dental age assessment, bite mark analysis, and dental identification. Most of the publications were research papers, and the majority of research is conducted in a few selected countries. Conclusion: It is fundamental that further research is needed to strengthen the forensic odontology investigation outcomes and to establish the standard protocols and international communications.
  4,456 535 -
Sexual dimorphism of radiomorphological features of frontal sinus
Padma Pandeshwar, Naveen N Kumar, Shilpa Padar Shastry, Akanksha Ananthaswamy, Archana Markande
July-December 2017, 2(2):46-50
Objective: Radiographs of the frontal sinus have been used in personal identification due to its uniqueness configuration. Largely there has been little agreement regarding the reliability of frontal sinus in gender determination. This study was performed to verify the dependability of radiomorphologic features of the frontal sinus in the assessment of sexual dimorphism. Methodology: A total of 100 paranasal radiographs were evaluated for sexual dimorphic features including number of scallops on the sinuses' superior border, unilateral/bilateral presence or absence of partial septa, number of partial septa, and unilateral/bilateral presence or absence of supraorbital cells. Results: Application of discriminative analysis to the data accurately identified the gender in merely 65.7% of cases. Conclusion: Therefore the radiomorphologic features of frontal sinus alone have limited value in gender determination and may be used as an auxiliary method.
  4,238 614 1
Neonatal line: A valuable evidence to prove female infanticide
Sadhana Kandavel, M Anita, U Vidhya Rekha, Tamara Mystica, KJ Swetha
January-June 2019, 4(1):11-13
Female infanticide is a widespread social problem in India. Majority of the cases of infanticide goes unreported, as there is a lack of proper evidence. It is very essential to distinguish live birth from stillbirth, to prove a case of infanticide. However, by the time, the mortal remains of the child are available for forensic examination, the body is decayed and putrefied; hence, soft-tissue evidence is lost. Although the chronological age of the child can be estimated by skeletal parameters, they cannot differentiate live birth and stillbirth. Thus, in such cases, the neonatal line is a valuable tool to prove female infanticide.
  4,297 525 -
Postmortem identification in forensic odontology
Joshua Ng Chor Yang, James David Raj
January-June 2017, 2(1):27-29
Forensic odontology is that part of dentistry which deals with the identification of a deceased individual by carefully examining and studying dental evidence. Over the years, many methods have been developed to identify the identity of a person. By studying the teeth and oral cavity, a forensic dentist can determine the age, gender, race and quite possible the identity of the individual. The key component in forensic sciences is to identify and compare a particular trait which is unique to that individual. In forensic odontology, a few traits have been identified such as bitemarks, enamel rod patterns, lip patterns, and genetic information embedded within the hard tissue of the tooth.
  4,156 580 1
Comparative evaluation of vertical crown length of deciduous and permanent teeth as a predictor of an individual height by linear stepwise regression analysis
Ramanna Chandrappa, VV Kamath, N Srikanth, C Sharada
January-June 2017, 2(1):2-8
Background: Establishing the identity of an individual by analyzing the teeth has being a matter of interest in forensic odontology. Dental morphometrics is useful in establishing physical profile of the individual at various stages in forensic studies. Tooth dimensions of both deciduous and permanent teeth can be correlated to various aspects of the facial and physical characteristics of an individual. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between clinical crown length (CL) of erupted deciduous and permanent teeth and the height of child and adult, respectively. An association between these two parameters, if any, was evaluated to derive a numerical equation that would predict the individual's height from tooth dimensions. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults (30 males and 30 females) of age range 18–26 years and sixty children (30 males and 30 females) of age range 3–6 years were included in this study. Clinical CL of the permanent teeth (tooth numbers 11, 12, 13, 16, 17) and deciduous teeth (tooth numbers 51, 52, 53, 54, 55) was measured on the subject cast models using digital Vernier calipers. Using a standard measuring tape, individual height (H) was also measured. Ratios (CL/H) of permanent tooth CL to individual height and deciduous tooth CL to the child height were documented. Using linear stepwise forward regression analysis, the probability of CL of the study group teeth that would most likely predict physical height of the child and adult was determined. Results: Statistical analysis showed strong correlation between the two parameters among children and adults. In permanent dentition, tooth CL of #12 permanent upper right lateral incisor (among the combined group of males and females) was statistically significant in the prediction of the adult height. Mathematically derived equation for adult height prediction using #12 CL based on linear stepwise forward regression analysis (derived from combined data of male and female samples) is 941.286 + 82.146 (#12 CL); in deciduous dentition, (#55) upper right second molar among the males, (#52) upper right lateral incisor among females, and (#53) upper right canine among the combined male and female group were statistically significant and predicted the child height with minimal variations. Equations derived for male child height prediction (using data of male children) is 660.290 + 72.970 × (#55CL), for female child height prediction (using data of female children) is − 187.942 + 194.818 × (#52 CL), and for child height prediction using #53 CL (using combined data of male and female children) is 400.558 + 90.264 × (#53 CL). Conclusion: There exists a definitive relation between vertical CL of teeth and the height of an individual. This relation is more predictive with teeth numbers 12 in adults and 52, 53, 55 in children. This information is of immense value in identification profiling in forensics.
  4,242 492 2
A cross-sectional study to assess knowledge, attitude, and awareness of forensic odontology among medical students: An emergency concern
Jayalakshmi Kumaraswamy, Raghunandan Bangalore Nagarajachar, Roopavathi Keshavaiah, Archana Susainathan, Mahesh Batalahalli Sreenivas Reddy, Jaya Naidu
January-June 2018, 3(1):17-20
Background: Medical professionals are important in treating and management of victims of mass disasters, abuse, and organized crimes. Although the forensic odontologist has a pivotal role in the investigation, health-care provider in the emergency medicine should have the potential to detect, inform, and interact with the dentist for further applications in legal issues. We aimed to conduct the present study on the knowledge, awareness, and attitude among the medical students. Materials and Methods: With informed consent, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 194 4th-year medical students. A structured questionnaire consisting of 17 items relating to forensic odontology to assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitude among medical students and data were collected and reviewed. Results: On analyzing the collected data of 194 participants, the percentage of participants who knew: the meaning of forensic odontology, forensic odontology a part of forensic medicine, and role of forensic odontology in the criminal analysis were 172 (87%), 192 (99%), and 181 (93%), respectively. A total of 183 (94%) were aware of bite mark patterns, 171 (88%) would examine for bite marks in child abuse, 89 (46%) the lip prints, DNA as accurate and sensitive method of comparison and teeth as source of DNA was 128 (66%) and 122 (63%), respectively. A total of 127 (65%) agreed that forensic odontologist as experts, 101 (52%) had opted for dental evidence, and 139 (72%) had agreed that postmortem unit should include a dental laboratory facility. However, only 79 (41%) knew the tooth as the choice of evidence in mass disaster. 101 (52%) stated dentist as expert witness. The awareness of the role of teeth in age and gender estimation was 147 (76%) and 79 (41%), respectively. Forty-nine (25%) had handled forensic dentistry case in emergency medicine and importance of maintaining dental records were known to 85 (44%). Conclusions: Medical students had inadequate knowledge of forensic odontology. As a health-care provider, medical professionals should understand the implications of forensic odontology.
  4,227 446 1
Comparative evaluation of formocresol and electrosurgical pulpotomy in human primary teeth- An in vivo study
Kritika Gupta, Vinay Bal Singh Thakur, Nitika Gupta, Archana Sharma, Atika Mahajan, Kanika Gupta
January-June 2018, 3(1):21-25
Introduction: Vital pulpotomy is defined as the surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed pulp followed by the placement of medicament over the remaining radicular pulp thereby maintaining the vitality of the remaining radicular pulp. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to compare clinically and radiographically the success rate of formocresol (FC) and electrosurgical pulpotomy in human primary teeth. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty primary molars between 3 and 8 years of age were taken from the Outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups of fifteen teeth each based on type of pulpotomy performed (15 receiving electrosurgical pulpotomy and 15 receiving FC pulpotomy). Under rubber dam isolation, pulpotomy was performed in both the groups and teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. The patients were recalled at 3, 6, and 9 months for clinical and radiographic follow-up. The data were evaluated using Chi-square test. Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The overall clinical success of FC was 100%, whereas that of electrocautery was 96% at 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-up. The overall radiographic success of FC was 100%, 93%, and 93% and that of electrocautery was 97%, 87%, and 77% at 3, 6, and 9 months, respectively. The teeth considered as failures were subjected to further treatment. Conclusion: There was statistically no significant difference in the pre-operative clinical and radiographic features between the two groups with the p>.05 as statistically analysed using chi-square test. Further studies using larger samples and longer evaluation periods are recommended.
  4,079 509 2
Experience of dental professionals in determination of gender by observing smile
Sourav Sen, Javeria Khan, Wajeeh Khan, Shravani Deolia, Rakashree Chakraborty Sen
January-June 2017, 2(1):18-21
Introduction: Every individual in his or her entire life has a photograph of smile. This makes identification as well as dead bodies and remains possible with the help of forensic odontology and medicine. Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to use only smile from photograph for gender identification by various experienced dental specialist. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a digital camera (Sony Cyber-shot DSC W800) was used to capture smile photographs, where participants were at a distance of 0.5 m from the lens and they were made to sit in a relax position with the Frankfort plane parallel to the floor. Among 50 captured photographs, 10 photographs were randomly selected, among which 5 males and 5 females, for pictorial questionnaire. Using Adobe Photoshop version 7.0, only teeth were made visible and other soft tissues were cropped so as not to make it a bias study. Results: All 5 dental colleges of Vidarbha region were included, in which 213 staff members participated in the study. Gender-wise distribution depicted 39.9% male and 60.10% female participants with no significance (P = 0.223). According to department-wise also was without any significance (P = 0.823). Now, according to designation wise, it was found that experience plays a vital role. Professor being the most experienced staff when compared with tutors (P = 0.03) and postgraduates (P = 0.015). Professors were most accurate in their opinions comparatively. Conclusion: This study concluded that identification of gender through only smile from photographs can be done with ease by professors due to their years of experience.
  3,993 558 -